##
Hypothesis Testing: Is It Significant?

10-20 min. Protip: You can watch YouTube videos at more than 1X speed.^{†}

**Optional Media.**
If you want to learn more about some of the topics discussed in the video above, and you have some free time, you might enjoy the following.

- Hill for the data scientist: an xkcd story. So if correlation isn't causation and rejecting the null hypothesis isn't enough for us to prove the alternative hypothesis, how can we ever know anything? Well, we can use common sense and some rules of thumb. Hill's Criteria are a set of guidelines for evaluating causation, and this resource explains them using xkcd comics.
- If you want to learn more about the replication of scientific results and what has come to be known as the
*replication crisis*, you may enjoy these podcast from Hi Phi Nation: Hackademics I and Hackademics II. - If you would like to explore the idea of significance tests a little more, this Khan Academy lesson is a nice distillation—The idea of significance tests.
- Conference Diversity Distribution Calculator. "This calculator models the probability distribution for male/female speaker balance assuming random selection, which roughly follows a binomial distribution. It was inspired by the work of Dave Wilkinson and Paul Battley, who made similar models and found that the likelihood of an unbiased selection process yielding a line-up with no women at all is far lower than intuition might suggest, and – depending on the numbers you plug in – can often be far lower than the likelihood of their over-representation. That is to say: in an unbiased selection, you’re significantly more likely to see more than the expected number of women than none at all."

## Readings

~ 45 Minutes

- Weapons of Math Destruction:
*Conclusion*(20 pages) - How Not to Be Wrong:
*How to be Right*(Conclusion) (16 pages)

### Your Mission: Machine Learning In Production with Google Sheets

~8-15 Minutes

This discussion build on the school closing example introduced back in level 4 when we talked about success metrics and built upon in levels 6, 7, and 9. If you're unfamiliar with Google Sheets, you can learn more on the Google Sheets website.

## Your Final Project

3+ Hours

We're entering the home stretch. Remember to ask questions in Slack if you're stuck, and when we next meet, we'll do rounds—checking in with everyone to see where they are at. See The Final Project Rubric.

## Self-Reflection and Logging Your Work

~20 min ^{}

As we do at the end of every level, we ask that you take a few minutes to reflect on how things are going. I've also included a set of reading questions to queue things up for our synchronous discussion. That being said, you've almost completed Level 10. Tell me how it's going by completing the form linked below.

## Synchronous Meet Up, AKA our Class Time

1 Hour and 30 Minutes | November 2, 2020 @ 4pm Eastern

If you're an enrolled student, we'll be meeting at this link on Monday November 2nd at 4pm via Zoom. If you don't have the password, and you are a registered student, DM me on Slack, and I can give you the password. If you're not an enrolled student, I'm afraid you can't join us.

We will use this time to: (1) discuss the readings; and (2) review your work on your final project.

^{†}Time estimates are just that—estimates. The assumptions used to calculate reading time are as follows: 48 pages is assumed to take roughly an hour to read. When working with non paginated texts, it is assumed that a page is roughly equal to 250 words. Videos assume both 2X and 1X viewing. Estimates for coding are based on past experience. Each level should include about 6 hours and 40 min of work.